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-G. Hanks, J.-C. Find out more . Previous Next Table of Contents This Report Journal of the ICRU (2004) 4 (1): 5-9. Johansson, T. PRESCRIBING, RECORDING, AND REPORTING ELECTRON BEAM THERAPY CONTENTS R. James Cancer Hospital, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA Fox Chase Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Centre G.-F.

Oxford Journals Science & Mathematics Journal of the ICRU Volume 4 Issue 1 Pp. Gahbauer, (Co-Chairman), T. 403 Forbidden . Cookies are required to use this site. Naudy, J. Leclerc, Dijon, France Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, USA Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Lyon, France Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Radiofysiska Institutionen, Ume , Sweden THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS 3 CONTENTS 5 PREFACE 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 15 ABSTRACT 17 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 19 1 INTRODUCTION 21 1.1 Aim of the report 21 1.2 Relation with other ICRU reports 22 1.3 From prescribing to recording and reporting 22 1.3.1 Treatment prescription 22 1.3.2 Recording the radiation treatment 22 1.3.3 Reporting the treatment 23 1.4 The three levels of dose and volume evaluation for reporting 23 1.4.1 Level 1 23 1.4.2 Level 2 23 1.4.3 Level 3 23 1.5 Reporting doses in a series of patients 24 1.6 Clinical examples 24 2 VOLUMES 25 2.1 Introduction 25 2.2 Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) 25 2.3 Clinical Target Volume (CTV) 25 2.3.1 The concept of CTV 25 2.3.2 Treatment of subclinical extensions surrounding a GTV 27 2.3.3 Treatment of subclinical extensions at a distance from a GTV 28 2.3.4 Reporting the CTV 28 2.3.5 The CTV and GTV: oncological concepts 28 2.4 Planning Target Volume (PTV) 28 2.4.1 The concept of PTV 28 2.4.2 Margins for the different types of variations and uncertainties 28 2.4.2.1 Internal Margin (IM) 28 2.4.2.2 Set-up Margin (SM) 30 2.4.3 Delineating the PTV 30 2.5 Treated Volume 32 2.5.1 Definition 32 2.5.2 Conformity index 33 2.6 Irradiated Volume 33 2.7 Organs at Risk (OARs) 33 2.8 Planning Organ at Risk Volume (PRV) 34 2.9 Reference Points and coordinate systems 34 2.9.1 Reference Points 34 2.9.2 Coordinate systems 34 2.9.2.1 The patient coordinate system p 35 2.9.2.2 Coordinate systems related to the treatment machine (t) and the imaging units (i) 35 2.10 Recommendations for recording and reporting volumes 36 2.10.1 Summary of the recommendations 36 2.10.2 Graphics 36 3 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRON BEAMS 39 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 Electron energy 39 3.3 Practical range, Rp 39 3.4 Therapeutic range 41 3.5 X-ray background 42 3.6 Dose gradient 42 3.7 Oblique beam incidence 43 3.8 Collimation 44 3.9 Effects of heterogeneities 44 3.10 Developments in electron beam therapy 45 3.10.1 Overview 45 3.10.2 Electron beam energy 45 3.10.3 Collimation 46 3.10.4 Three-dimensional dose computation and treatment planning 47 4 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRESCRIBING, RECORDING, AND REPORTING EXTERNAL-BEAM THERAPY 49 4.1 From prescribing to recording and reporting 49 4.1.1 Prescribing the treatment 49 4.1.1.1 Approach based on central Reference Point 49 4.1.1.2 Approach based on specification of a dose range within the PTV 49 4.1.1.3 Approach based on minimum dose to the PTV 49 4.1.2 Reporting the treatment 50 4.1.3 Recording the treatment parameters 50 4.2 The three levels of dose and volume evaluation for reporting 50 4.2.1 Level 1 50 4.2.2 Level 2 50 4.2.3 Level 3 50 4.3 General recommendations for reporting electron beam therapy 51 4.3.1 Principles 51 4.3.2 The ICRU reference point 51 4.3.3 Reporting dose distributions in the CTV and PTV 51 4.3.3.1 Dose homogeneity required in the PTV 51 4.3.3.2 Reporting dose distribution at Levels 1, 2, and 3 51 4.3.3.3 Evaluation of PTV 95 (PTV 90) for reporting 52 4.3.4 Dose (and dose distribution) to the Organs at Risk 52 4.3.5 Doses at Reference Points, dose distributions in volumes, and developments related to dose-volume histograms 52 4.3.5.1 Doses at Reference Points 52 4.3.5.2 Dose distributions in volumes 52 4.3.5.3 Developments related to DVHs 53 4.4 Reporting a series of patients 53 4.4.1 Introduction 53 4.4.2 Reporting prescription of treatment (protocol) 53 4.4.3 Description of actual treatment in a series of patients 53 5 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR REPORTING DOSES IN ELECTRON BEAM THERAPY FOR DIFFERENT CLINICAL SITUATIONS 57 5.1 Introduction 57 5.2 Reporting doses for a single electron beam 57 5.2.1 Reference conditions 57 5.2.1.1 Reporting at Level 1 58 5.2.1.2 Reporting at Level 2 or 3 59 5.2.2 Small and irregularly shaped beams 59 5.2.2.1 Reporting at Level 1 59 5.2.2.2 Reporting at Level 2 or 3 59 5.2.3 Extended SSDair gaps 59 5.2.3.1 Reporting at Level 1 59 5.2.3.2 Reporting at Level 2 or 3 59 5.2.4 Oblique electron beam incidence 59 5.2.4.1 Reporting at Level 1 60 5.2.4.2 Reporting at Level 2 or 3 61 5.2.5 Heterogeneities 62 5.2.5.1 Reporting at Level 1 63 5.2.5.2 Reporting at Level 2 or 3 63 5.2.6 Bolus 64 5.3 Combination of electron and photon beams 64 5.3.1 One high-energy photon beam and one electron beam (coaxial beams, same field size) 64 5.3.2 Adjacent electron and photon beams 65 5.4 Combinations of electron beams 66 5.4.1 Adjacent-parallel electron beams 66 5.4.2 Parallel-opposed electron beams 66 5.5 Electron-beam arc therapy 68 6 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES 69 6.1 Intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) 69 6.1.1 Introduction 69 6.1.2 Beam requirements 69 6.1.3 Recommendations for reporting 70 6.1.3.1 Treatment technique 70 6.1.3.2 The ICRU Reference Point 70 6.1.3.3 Reporting of dose 70 6.2. Online ISSN 1742-3422 - Print ISSN 1473-6691 Copyright 2016 International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements . Landberg, (Co-Chairman), J. doi: 10.1093/jicru/ndh003 This report appears in: ICRU Report 71: Prescribing, Recording, and Reporting Electron Beam Therapy ExtractFree Full Text (HTML)Free Full Text (PDF)Free Classifications Articles Services Article metrics Alert me when cited Alert me if corrected Find similar articles Similar articles in Web of Science Add to my archive Download citation Request Permissions Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via CrossRef Citing articles via Scopus Citing articles via Web of Science Citing articles via Google Scholar Google Scholar Articles by Gahbauer, R. Current EventsExpert Workshop to be held in conjunction with ICRU Committee Meeting in Chiba, JapanICRU Vice Chairman Receives William D.

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